For the purpose of Neo-Quenya writing, the best translation of "with" (in the sense of "together with") is probably \#as, attested with a pronominal suffix (see below). A string of various prepositional elements meaning "with" are attested, but all are probably not meant to coexist in the same form of Quenya; rather Tolkien often changed his mind about the details. The preposition lé, le found in early material (QL:52) is probably best avoided in LotR-style Quenya (in which langauge le is rather the pronoun "you"). Tolkien later seems to be experimenting with yo and ó/o as words for "with"; yo hildinyar in SD:56 probably means *"with my heirs", and VT43:29 reproduces a table where various pronouns are suffixed to ó-, probably meaning "with" (óni *"with me", ólë *"with you", etc.) In the essay Quendi and Eldar, Tolkien assigns a dual meaning to ó- as a prefix; it was used "in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units" (WJ:367; cf. 361 regarding the underlying stem WO, said to be a dual adverb "together"). The plural equivalent of dual ó- is yo- (as in yomenië, WJ:407 cf. 361 regarding the underlying root JŌ), and it may seem to be this yo that occurs as an independent preposition in yo hildinyar in SD:56. The idea that ó- is a distinctly dual form does not appear in all sources; in VT43:29 we have forms like *ómë *"with us", implying at least three persons. In Tolkien's drafts for a Quenya rendering of the Hail Mary, he experimented with various prepositional elements for the phrase "with thee" (see VT43:29). A form carelyë was replaced with aselyë in the final version. Removing the ending -lyë "thee" and the connecting vowel before it leaves us with \#as as the word (or a word) for "with"; this is ultimately related to the conjunction ar "and" (see VT43:30, 47:31). – In English, the preposition "with" may also have an instrumental force, which is best rendered by the Quenya instrumental case (e.g. *nambanen "with [= using] a hammer").

Quettaparma Quenyallo (English-Quenya). 2014.


Look at other dictionaries:

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